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Valérie Schafer, Matthias Höfer & Carmen Noguera

Women, Gender and Computing


Citation:
Schafer, Valérie; Höfer, Matthias; Noguera, Carmen: Women, Gender and Computing, 2023 (Living Books About History).
Online: <https://www.livingbooksabouthistory.ch/en/book/women-gender-and-computing>.

Part 1 - (In)Visibility through time

Sources

Szondy, David: US Army recruiting advertisement featuring ENIAC, nd, New Atlas: 75 years ago, the world’s first modern computer made its public debut, 25.02.2021, <https://newatlas.com/computers/eniac-worlds-first-modern-computer-public-debut/#gallery:1>, Stand: 24.01.2023.
National Machine Accounting Association Annual Meeting, Gallery, 1951, <http://gallery.lib.umn.edu/exhibits/show/gender-codes/item/2453>, Stand: 24.01.2023.
Women in Data Processing – speech delivered by Dame Stephanie Shirley in June 1980, University of Kent Special Collections & Archives, <https://blogs.kent.ac.uk/specialcollections/files/2022/02/Speech-1980-1.jpg>, Stand: 24.01.2023.
NeoGamer - The Video Game Archive: Dinosaur Planet (Nintendo 64 Prototype) vs. Star Fox Adventures (GameCube) | Side by Side, 16:35, 23.02.2021. Online: <https://youtu.be/KDVzwVizJpI>, Stand: 24.01.2023.

Research materials

CSHL Leading Strand: How Gender Shapes Opportunity in STEM: Lessons From the History of Computing, CSHL Keynote: Dr. Janet Abbate, Virginia Tech, 55:14, YouTube, 21.01.2022. Online: <https://youtu.be/Ax-6rRdOpw0>, Stand: 24.01.2023.
Light, Jennifer S.: When Computers Were Women, in: Technology and Culture, 40 (3), 07.1999, S. 455–483. Online: < http://rybn.org/human_computers/articles/when_computers_were_women.pdf>, Stand: 09.05.2011.
Schlombs, Corinna: Built on the Hands of Women. Data, Automation, and Gender in West Germany’s Financial Industry, in: Technology and Culture 64 (1), 2023, S. 63–89. Online: <https://muse.jhu.edu/article/879582>.
Haigh, Thomas; Priestley, Mark: Innovators assemble. Ada Lovelace, Walter Isaacson, and the superheroines of computing, in: Communications of the ACM 58 (9), 24.08.2015, S. 20–27. Online: <https://www.tomandmaria.com/Tom/Writing/CACMInnovatorsAssemble.pdf>.
Ensmenger, Nathan: Making Programming Masculine, in: Misa, Thomas J. (Hg.): Gender Codes, Hoboken, NJ, USA 2010, S. 115–141. Online: <https://homes.luddy.indiana.edu/nensmeng/files/Ensmenger2010-MPM.pdf>, Stand: 26.01.2023.

Part 2 - Users and gendered representations

Sources

JWT Competitive Advertisements Collection: The electric typewriter, 1964, Consuming Women, Liberating Women: Women and Advertising in the Mid 20th Century, Women in Tech Ads. Online: <https://sites.duke.edu/womenandadvertising/files/2019/06/1964_typewriter-e1561312276343-857x1024.jpg>, Stand: 26.01.2023.
Advertisement by QSOL.COM (2000 and 2007), 2007. Online: <https://img.buzzfeed.com/buzzfeed-static/static/enhanced/terminal05/2012/6/11/14/enhanced-buzz-28332-1339439850-6.jpg>, Stand: 26.01.2023.
Bui, Quoctrung: When Women Stopped Coding, 21.10.2014. Online: <https://www.npr.org/sections/money/2014/10/21/357629765/when-women-stopped-coding>, Stand: 26.01.2023.
Burke, Amy; Okrent, Abigail; Hale, Katherine: The State of U.S. Science and Engineering 2022, Science and Engineering Indicators, 18.01.2022, <https://ncses.nsf.gov/pubs/nsb20221/u-s-and-global-stem-education-and-labor-force#s-e-higher-education-in-the-united-states>, Stand: 26.01.2023.

Research materials

Hicks, Marie: Only the Clothes Changed. Women Operators in British Computing and Advertising, 1950-1970, in: IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 32 (4), 10.2010, S. 5–17. Online: <https://web.archive.org/web/20190228200205id_/http://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/97ae/02e2fe77ce03aa10464aba8d64507274224d.pdf>.
Morley, Chantal; McDonnell, Martina: The Gendering of the Computing Field in Finland, France and the United Kingdom Between 1960 and 1990, in: Schafer, Valérie; Thierry, Benjamin G. (Hg.): Connecting Women: Women, Gender and ICT in Europe in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century, Cham 2015 (History of Computing), S. 119–135. Online: , Stand: 30.01.2023.
Collet, Isabelle: Effet de genre. Le paradoxe des études d’informatique, in: tic&société (Vol. 5, n° 1), 03.10.2011. Online: <https://doi.org/10.4000/ticetsociete.955>, Stand: 30.01.2023.
Turkle, Sherry: Computional Reticence. Why Women fear the Intimate Machine, in: Kramarae, Cheris: Technology and women’s voices. Keeping in touch, New York ; London 1986. Online: <https://sherryturkle.mit.edu/sites/default/files/images/ST_Compu%20Reticence.pdf>.
Noble, Safiya Umoja: Google Search. Hyper-visibility as a Means of Rendering Black Women and Girls Invisible, in: InVisible Culture (19), 01.09.2013. Online: <https://doi.org/10.47761/494a02f6.50883fff>, Stand: 30.01.2023.
Nooney, Laine: A Pedestal, A Table, A Love Letter. Archaeologies of Gender in Videogame History, in: Game Studies 13 (2), 12.2013. Online: <http://gamestudies.org/1302/articles/nooney>, Stand: 30.01.2023.

Part 3 - Empowerment, appropriation and activism

Sources

Shutt, Elsie: Interview conducted by Janet Abbate, 26.01.2021. Online: <https://ethw.org/Oral-History:Elsie_Shutt#About_the_Interview>, Stand: 30.01.2023.
Tuite, Kathleen: Feminist Hacker Barbie, 2014, <https://computer-engineer-barbie.herokuapp.com>, Stand: 30.01.2023.
The Guerrilla Girls: The Internet Was 84.5% Male And 82.3% White, 1996, 2017. Online: <https://www.artbasel.com/catalog/artwork/54875/THE-GUERRILLA-GIRLS-The-Internet-Was-84-5-Male-And-82-3-White>, Stand: 30.01.2023.
Mashable: Meet The Woman Teaching One Million Girls How to Code, 3:22, 27.02.2019. Online: <https://youtu.be/b7r8McQJxDs>, Stand: 31.01.2023.
Feminist Frequency: Women as Background Decoration: Part 2 - Tropes vs Women in Video Games, 28:32, 25.08.2014. Online: <https://youtu.be/5i_RPr9DwMA>, Stand: 31.01.2023.

Research materials

Cameron, Lori: How a Woman Named «Steve» Became One of Britain’s Most Celebrated IT Pioneers, Entrepreneurs, and Philanthropists, IEEE Computer Society, <>, Stand: 31.01.2023.
Roberts, Eric S.; Kassianidou, Marina; Irani, Lilly: Encouraging women in computer science, in: ACM SIGCSE Bulletin 34 (2), 06.2002, S. 84–88. Online: <https://www-cs.stanford.edu/people/eroberts/papers/SIGCSE-Inroads/EncouragingWomenInCS.pdf>.
Mortensen, Torill Elvira: Anger, Fear, and Games. The Long Event of #GamerGate, in: Games and Culture 13 (8), 12.2018, S. 787–806. Online: <https://pure.itu.dk/ws/files/82437000/Games_and_Culture.pdf>.
Jouët, Josiane; Niemeyer, Katharina; Pavard, Bibia: Faire des vagues. Les mobilisations féministes en ligne, in: Réseaux 201 (1), Paris 2017, S. 21–57. Online: <https://www.cairn.info/revue-reseaux-2017-1-page-21.htm?contenu=article>.
Julliard, Virginie: #Theoriedugenre : comment débat-on du genre sur Twitter ?, in: Questions de communication (30), 31.12.2016, S. 135–157. Online: <https://doi.org/10.4000/questionsdecommunication.10744>.